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Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13

Ma Gurupriya

  • Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13

    Ma Gurupriya

श्रीभगवानुवाच।

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहु: क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विद: ॥

śrī bhagavān-uvāca
idaṃ śarīraṃ kaunteya kṣetram-ity-abhidhīyate
etad-yo vetti taṃ prāhu: kṣetrajña iti tad-vida: – 13.1

Lord Krishna said: O Kaunteya (Arjuna), this body is called kshetra, the Field. Knowers of Truth say that whoever knows this, is the Kshetrajña, the knower of the Field.

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥

kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor-jñānaṃ yat-taj-jñānaṃ mataṃ mama – 13.2

Know Me (the supreme Reality) to be the Knower of the Field, in all fields. I consider the knowledge of both kshetra and Kshetrajña as true spiritual wisdom.

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत्।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे श्रृणु ॥

tat-kṣetraṃ yacca yādṛk-ca yad-vikāri yataś-ca yat
sa ca yo yat-prabhāvaś-ca tat-samāsena me śṛṇu – 13.3

Hear from Me in essence: What that Field (kshetra) is, what are its characteristics and various modifications, wherefrom and how it has originated; and also what He (the Kshetrajña) is and what are His powers.

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधै: पृथक् ।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितै: ॥

ṛṣibhir-bahudhā gītaṃ chandobhir-vividhai: pṛthak
brahma-sūtrapadaiścaiva hetumadbhir-viniścitai: – 13.4

(All this) has been sung by the Rishis (Seers) in many ways, in distinct metres; and also has been established by the rational words and phrases of Brahma-sūtras (aphoristic statements delineating Brahman, the supreme Reality).

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचरा: ॥

mahā-bhūtāny-ahaṅkāro buddhiravyaktam-eva ca
indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriya-gocarā: – 13.5

The five subtle elements (space, air, fire, water and earth); then the ego, intelligence, the unmanifest existence (avyakta), the ten organs (of knowledge and action) and the mind; then five objects of sensory perceptions (sound, touch, colour, taste and smell); desire, dislike, pleasantness, unpleasantness, the aggregate-body, consciousness and resolve – these constitute kshetra with its multiple derivatives.

इच्छा द्वेष: सुखं दु:खं सङ्घातश्चेतना धृति:।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥

icchā dveṣa: sukhaṃ du:khaṃ saṅghātaścetanā dhṛti:
etat-kṣetraṃ samāsena savikāram-udāhṛtam – 13.6

The five subtle elements (space, air, fire, water and earth); then the ego, intelligence, the unmanifest existence (avyakta), the ten organs (of knowledge and action) and the mind; then five objects of sensory perceptions (sound, touch, colour, taste and smell); desire, dislike, pleasantness, unpleasantness, the aggregate-body, consciousness and resolve – these constitute kshetra with its multiple derivatives.

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम्।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रह: ॥

amānitvam-adambhitvam-ahiṃsā kṣāntir-ārjavam
ācāryopāsanaṃ śaucaṃ sthairyam-ātma-vinigraha: – 13.7

Sublimation of pride, non-ostentation, non-hurting, tolerance or forgiveness, straight-forwardness, adoring and serving the Teacher, cleanliness (of body and mind), stability and steadfastness, self-control;–

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कार एव च।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदु:खदोषानुदर्शनम्॥

indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam-anahaṅkāra eva ca
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-du:kha-doṣānudarśanam – 13.8

Not being passionate about sensory objects, freedom from egoism, seeing clearly the trouble and torment associated with birth, death, old age, disease and affliction; safeguarding against delusional clinging to children, wife, household, etc. and the resultant suffering, always being even-minded in favourable and unfavourable turn of events.

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्ग: पुत्रदारगृहादिषु।
नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥

asaktiranabhiṣvaṅga: putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu
nityaṃ ca sama-cittatvam-iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu – 13.9

Not being passionate about sensory objects, freedom from egoism, seeing clearly the trouble and torment associated with birth, death, old age, disease and affliction; safeguarding against delusional clinging to children, wife, household, etc. and the resultant suffering, always being even-minded in favourable and unfavourable turn of events.

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥

mayi cānanyayogena bhaktiravyabhicāriṇī
vivikta-deśa-sevitvam-aratirjana-saṃsadi – 13.10

Unflinching devotion and yoga of exclusive loyalty to Me (the Teacher who exposes the supreme Truth); the habit of seeking seclusion and finding joy in it; lack of interest in and disinclination to be with crowds and the din and bustle of the world.

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम्।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥

adhyātma-jñāna-nityatvaṃ tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam
etajjñānam-iti proktam-ajñānaṃ yad-ato’nyathā – 13.11

Being constantly given to spiritual introspection, perceiving the true object of life as determined by the tenets of spiritual wisdom – all these together (beginning from verse 13.8) constitute true wisdom. Everything else is sheer ignorance.

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते।
अनादिमत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥

jñeyaṃ yat-tat-pravakṣyāmi yajjñātvāmṛtam-aśnute
anādimat-paraṃ brahma na sat-tannāsad-ucyate – 13.12

I shall now describe clearly that which should be known, knowing which one attains immortality. It is the beginningless, supreme Brahman, which is neither existence nor non-existence.

सर्वत:पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम्।
सर्वत:श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥

sarvata: pāṇi-pādaṃ tat-sarvato’kṣi-śiro-mukham
sarvata: śrutimalloke sarvam-āvṛtya tiṣṭhati – 13.13

With hands and feet, eyes, head, face and ears everywhere, it stands embracing all.

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम्।
असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥

sarvendriya-guṇābhāsaṃ sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktaṃ sarva-bhṛccaiva nirguṇaṃ guṇa-bhoktṛ ca – 13.14

Revealing all sense-objects, though itself devoid of senses, it is dis-attached, yet the sustainer of all, attribute-free, the enjoyer of all qualities.

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥

bahirantaś-ca bhūtānām-acaraṃ caram-eva ca
sūkṣmatvāt-tad-avijñeyaṃ dūrasthaṃ cāntike ca tat – 13.15

Present outside and inside the beings, mobile and immobile alike, it remains incomprehensible due to its subtlety. It is far away, yet close by too.

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम्।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥

avibhaktaṃ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktam-iva ca sthitam
bhūta-bhartṛ ca tajjñeyaṃ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca – 13.16

Though indivisible, it appears divided in beings (with their individual ego-centre). It is to be known as the originator, preserver and dissolver of all.

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमस: परमुच्यते।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥

jyotiṣām-api tajjyotis-tamasa: param-ucyate
jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ jñāna-gamyaṃ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam – 13.17

It is the effulgence of all luminaries. It is said to be beyond darkness (ignorance). It is Knowledge, the One to be known and reached by Knowledge alone. It is established in everyone’s heart.

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासत:।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥

iti kṣetraṃ tathā jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ coktaṃ samāsata:
mad-bhakta etad-vijñāya mad-bhāvāyopapadyate – 13.18

Thus briefly have been stated what the kshetra, knowledge, and what ought to be known, are. My devotee, having known this, becomes fit to attain My state (the supreme state).

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान् ॥

prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy-anādī ubhāvapi
vikārāṃśca guṇāṃścaiva viddhi prakṛti-sambhavān – 13.19

Know both Prakṛti (Nature) and Purusha (the Soul) as beginningless (transcending time). Know all modifications and qualities as born of Prakṛti alone. (Purusha remains ever the same).

कार्यकरणकर्तृत्वे हेतु: प्रकृतिरुच्यते।
पुरुष: सुखदु:खानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥

kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve hetu: prakṛtirucyate
puruṣa: sukha-du:khānāṃ bhoktṛtve heturucyate – 13.20

In producing all kinds of outcome, including our body, with instruments of action, the limbs and senses, Prakṛti (Nature) is the sole cause. In experiencing sukha and dumkha, Purusha is the cause.

पुरुष: प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान्।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥

puruṣa: prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijān-guṇān
kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo’sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu – 13.21

Purusha, dwelling in Prakṛti (Nature), experiences the outcomes brought by its qualities (guṇas). His clinging to these qualities is the cause for births in good or bad wombs.

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वर:।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुष: पर: ॥

upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvara:
paramātmeti cāpy-ukto dehe’smin-puruṣa: para: – 13.22

Purusha, dwelling in the body, witnesses, permits, supports and experiences everything. The overlord of all, He is also said to be Paramātmā, the supreme Self.

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणै: सह।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥

ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇai: saha
sarvathā vartamāno’pi na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate – 13.23

Whoever thus knows the Purusha and Prakṛti along with its (Prakṛti’s) attributes, will not court any further birth, no matter how he lives.

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना।
अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥

dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecid-ātmānam-ātmanā
anye sāṅkhyena yogena karma-yogena cāpare – 13.24

Resorting to exclusive meditation, some perceive the Self in them by their self. Some others do so by assiduous introspection (Vicāra or Sāṅkhya-yoga), while others accomplish the goal by taking to Karma-yoga.

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्त: श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणा: ॥

anye tvevam-ajānanta: śrutvānyebhya upāsate
te’pi cātitaranty-eva mṛtyuṃ śruti-parāyaṇā: – 13.25

There are yet others who, ignorant of these paths, take to sādhanā listening to others’ expositions. Such seekers also, given to assiduous listening and sincere pursuit, transcend mortality.

यावत्सञ्जायते किञ्चित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम्।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥

yāvat-sañjāyate kiñcit-sattvaṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamam
kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogāt-tad-viddhi bharatarṣabha – 13.26

Whatever being, mobile or immobile, is born, understand it to be an effect of the conjunction of kshetra and Kshetrajña (Nature and Consciousness), O the great among Bharatas (Arjuna).

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्।
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं य: पश्यति स पश्यति ॥

samaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṃ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsvavinaśyantaṃ ya: paśyati sa paśyati – 13.27

He who perceives the supreme Lord as established in all beings equally, further as the imperishable presence in all perishable entities around, is the real Seer.

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम्।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥

samaṃ paśyan-hi sarvatra samavasthitam-īśvaram
na hinasty-ātmanātmānaṃ tato yāti parāṃ gatim – 13.28

Perceiving the Lord as equally present everywhere and in all alike, such a one does not destroy the Self by the self, and hence attains the supreme spiritual state.

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वश:।
य: पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥

prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśa:
ya: paśyati tathātmānam-akartāraṃ sa paśyati – 13.29

He who ‘sees’ all kinds of activities as instrumented by Prakṛti alone, and likewise sees the Self as ever the non-doer, is the true Seer.

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा ॥

yadā bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam-ekastham-anupaśyati
tata eva ca vistāraṃ brahma sampadyate tadā – 13.30

When one perceives all diverse beings as abiding in the One, and spreading forth from It, he attains Brahman.

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्यय:।
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥

anāditvānnirguṇatvāt-paramātmāyam-avyaya:
śarīrastho’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate – 13.31

The inmost Soul, being beginningless and free of any attribute, is Imperishable. O Kunti’s son (Arjuna), though dwelling in the body, It neither does anything, nor gets tainted the least.

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥

yathā sarvagataṃ saukṣmyād-ākāśaṃ nopalipyate
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate – 13.32

Just as the all-pervading space, due to its subtlety, does not court any stain, the Soul, permeating throughout the body, is not tainted by anything (happening to the body).

यथा प्रकाशयत्येक: कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रवि:।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥

yathā prakāśayaty-eka: kṛtsnaṃ lokam-imaṃ ravi:
kṣetraṃ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṃ prakāśayati bhārata – 13.33

As the one Sun illumines this whole world, so does the one Subject Consciousness (Kshetrī) reveal the entire object-world (kshetra), O Bhārata.

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥

kṣetra-kṣetrajñayorevam-antaraṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣā
bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣaṃ ca ye vidur-yānti te param – 13.34

Those who, with the power of spiritual insight, know the difference between the Field (kshetra) and the Knower of the Field (Kshetrajña), and equally the truth about the freedom from the stronghold of Prakṛti, reach the Supreme.

ओं तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभागयोगो नाम त्रयोदशोऽध्याय:।

oṃ tat-sad-iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsūpaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yogo nāma trayodaśo’dhyāya:

Om – the symbol of Brahman, tat – that singular Reality (Brahman), sat – the ever abiding presence (Brahman).

Thus ends the thirteenth chapter entitled Kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga Yoga, during the Srikrishna-Arjuna dialogue in Śrīmad Bhagavad Gita, constituting Yoga-śāstra, which falls within Brahmavidya as presented in the Vedic Upanishads.

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Ma Gurupriya

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